International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Заголовок: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Сведения: 2024-04-03 16:04:46

Although the text of the Pact was adopted in 1966, it took another ten years before 35 States became Parties to it, and it was not until March 23, 1976 that it entered into force for these States. As of June 2004, an additional 117 States had become Parties to the Covenant, resulting in a total of 152 States currently parties to the Covenant. Updated lists of States parties to all treaties can be found in the database of treaty bodies of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ( ), as well as in the United Nations Treaty Collection at: (for subscribers only).

How does a State agree to be bound by the terms of a treaty, in particular the Covenant and its Optional Protocols?

A State can become a party to the treaty in two ways.

Firstly, it can sign a treaty, after which, according to the norms of international law, the State cannot act contrary to the object and purpose of the treaty. The signature is followed by ratification. Upon depositing the instrument of ratification, the State officially declares its intention to fulfill its obligations under the treaty. In addition, the State can join the treaty. Accession, in which a non-signatory State agrees to be bound by its obligations, is equivalent to ratification. As a rule, the relevant treaty provides for a short period of time after the date of ratification or accession before the State actually assumes obligations under this treaty. In the case of a Pact, this period is three months. Additional information on these procedures can be found in the Treaty Handbook of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, available at: .

Parties to the Covenant may also become parties to one or both of its Optional Protocols. The First Optional Protocol establishes a system under which the Human Rights Committee can receive and consider complaints from individuals who claim that their human rights have been violated, while the Second Optional Protocol abolishes the death penalty in States parties. The First Optional Protocol also entered into force on 23 March 1976 and currently has 104 States parties, while the Second Optional Protocol, with 53 States parties, entered into force on 11 July 1991.



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